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Simple Design, Test Doubles Comments

In 2014 I read an article with the provocative title “Mockists are Dead. Long live Classicists.”. In it, the author frames mock objects (I assume that they mean all test doubles, as opposed to specifically method/function expectations) as “dangerous” and warns against a mistake he calls “tautological TDD”, which he describes as writing tests that merely repeat an idea in different words. This sounds risky to me, and something I’d probably want to warn against, but not something that I tend to do, so I wondered how they had seen test doubles used that would create this problem. I examined his example.1

Interlude: Examples of Tautologies in Tests

I don’t mean to claim that nobody makes this mistake. I have made mistakes like this in the past. Every person who uses test doubles eventually writes a test that looks like this:

# ...several lines of code setting up test doubles...
foo = double("a most excellent Foo")
foo.stub(:bar).with(1, 2, 3).and_return("hello!")
# ...several more lines of code setting up other test doubles...
# ...several more lines of code pushing some method down the desired logic path...
# ...too many assertions, because we're not sure what to check...
assert_equals "hello!",, 2, 3)
# ...several more assertions, because programming is hard!

When I strip away all the irrelevant lines of code, then it becomes much easier to spot the obvious, silly mistake. This test merely stubs a function, then verifies the stub. Congratulations! Now that you have checked the test-double library, maybe you can check your own code! (I kid because I love. If you haven’t written this test at least once, then you haven’t been pushing yourself out of our comfort zone enough.)

A simpler example boils down to this:

assert_equals 7 + 4, Fraction(7).plus(Fraction(4))

Here, the tautology consists of using the algorithm to check itself, since plus() probably uses integer arithmetic to handle the backwards-compatible case of adding fractions that are also integers. If you perform the Saff Squeeze2 on this case, then you’ll eventually get down to

assert_equals 7 + 4, 7 + 4

and although you can simply look at this code and see that it’s right, I can envision a more complicated algorithm which I’d find easy to get wrong the same way in both places, resulting in a test that provides a false sense of security.

Back To Our Main Story…

The example centers around a CarRepository, which appears to implement the Domain-Driven Design Repository pattern in a straightforward way. The production code looks like this:

public class CarRepository {
  private ServiceHeaderFactory serviceHeaderFactory;
  private CarService carService;

  public CarRepository(ServiceHeaderFactory serviceHeaderFactory,
                       CarService carService) {
    this.serviceHeaderFactory = serviceHeaderFactory;
    this.carService = carService;
  public Cars findAll() {
    ServiceHeader serviceHeader = serviceHeaderFactory.create();
    return carService.findAll(serviceHeader);

The test looks like this:

public void shouldRetrieveCarsFromCarServiceUsingTheRightServiceHeader() throws Exception {
  // GIVEN
  ServiceHeader serviceHeader = new ServiceHeader();
  ServiceHeaderFactory serviceHeaderFactoryMock = mock(ServiceHeaderFactory.class);
  CarService carServiceMock = mock(CarService.class);
  CarRepository carRepository = new CarRepository(serviceHeaderFactoryMock, carServiceMock);

  // WHEN

  // THEN

The author calls this test “tautological” because the checks appear only to duplicate the implementation. I agree: the when and then lines…


…correspond perfectly to a couple of lines in the production code.

ServiceHeader serviceHeader = serviceHeaderFactory.create()
return carService.findAll(serviceHeader)

From this, the author reasons that the test provides no useful information, categorizes it as redundant, labels it “tautological”, and considers it dangerous. He writes:

When we write tests this way, most of the time if the implementation changes, we end up changing the expectations of the test as well and yeah, the tests pass automagically. But without knowing much about its behaviour. These tests are a mirror of the implementation, therefore tautological.—Fabio Pereira

Another Interpretation

I understand the author’s perspective, and I remember feeling skeptical about this myself. It felt strange seeing this duplication, and it seemed like the same thing every time: the expectation at the end of my test corresponded to the last line of my production method, and the stubs corresponded to almost every other line of the method. I thought that this must fly in the face of Don’t Repeat Yourself, Once and Only Once, and The Four Elements of Simple Design, and that made me nervous.

Let me offer another way to interpret the situation. Some objects interact very, very simply with their collaborators. Some objects act as simple mediators, such as those implementing the Template Method pattern. It seems pretty reasonable to me that the checks for a mediator of only two collaborators with a single code path would look too simple. I don’t think of this as a consequence of using mock objects, but rather a consequence of a very simple design. I consider this a good thing. Next month, when we discover that this mediator needs to do more, I suspect that I’ll find it easy to understand and easy to add new behavior.

What Do We Really Have Here?

The author’s example leaves me a bit confused. I don’t quite understand the division of responsibility among the CarRepository, the ServiceHeaderFactory and the CarService. Since I can’t use the author a definitive source of information, let me draw some conclusions from the code itself. It seems that CarService bears the responsibility for finding cars based on something called the service header. It seems that CarRepository wants to “find all the cars”, but doesn’t want to specify a service header, pushing that responsibility up to the caller. And at this point, I have no idea why CarRepository even exists.

Meet Bob.


Bob has a service header (whatever that is) and wants to find all the corresponding cars, but he can’t figure out how to make that happen.

Looking at the code available, Bob has two options:

new CarService(...).findAll(bobsServiceHeader)
new CarRepository(new ServiceHeaderFactory() {
  public ServiceHeader create() {
    return bobsServiceHeader;

I see a bewildered and bemused look on Bob’s face. I think I understand why. I have no idea what value CarRepository brings to the design. So far, it turns a method parameter into an injectable constructor parameter. So far, it serves only to obscure the notion that one looks for cars relative (somehow) to a service header.

Put yourself in Bob’s shoes. You have a service header. You want the corresponding cars. (I don’t even need to know what “correspond” means yet in this context, and so far, I don’t need to.) You look for a library function to do this for you. What do you expect?

I know that I expect a function that maps a service header onto a set of cars. Something like

Collection<Car> findAllCarsBy(serviceHeader)

You know what I don’t expect?! Something like

Please put your service header in an envelope and write “Service Header Factory” on the outside of it (ignore the words on the envelope—Jake knows what they mean), then give that envelope to Jake over there. Jake’s a good boy. Ask Jake for all the cars, at which point Jake will open the envelope, read the service header, and tell you all the cars that correspond. OK? Good boy, that Jake.

We’d better have a damn good reason for making Bob jump through all these hoops to find the cars that correspond to his service header.

If Bob could only use CarService directly, then he wouldn’t have to deal with Jake at all. We could make this whole problem disappear by letting Bob use CarService directly. In this case, Bob would have the chance to write typical, straightforward collaboration tests:

  • stub CarService to return convenient collections of Cars for his purposes, following the pattern of 0, 1, many, lots, oops.
  • set an expectation on CarService to verify that his code asks for cars corresponding to the correct service header.

He might not need both of these kinds of tests, but he has the option, and I would certainly not label any of those tests “tautological”.

Of course, if I simply defined the problem away, you’d want your money back, so I need to transport myself into a universe in which we have damn good reasons for making Bob jump through all these hoops to find the cars that correspond to his service header.

Some Damn Good Reasons…

Why might we need to expose the “find all cars for a service header” feature through CarRepository rather than CarService?

  1. We need to adapt this feature to a frozen interface (like a framework) that disallows specifying the service header as a function parameter.
  2. We want to shield clients from the difficulty of instantiating CarService.3
  3. We want, for the purposes of this particular application, to interpret “all cars” to mean “all cars corresponding to a specific service header”.

Since these all seem plausible, let me address them in turn.

CarRepository As Adapter

Thinking back to Design Patterns, we use the term Adapter to refer to an object with the responsibility of exporting another object (the delegate) using a more convenient interface. So maybe Fabio needs CarRepository to act as an Adapter for CarService. OK. Let’s assume that. What now?

I have CarService.findAll(serviceHeader), but my clients demand the interface CarRepository.findAll(). I have two choices: choose a default value for serviceHeader or make it a constructor parameter. I’ll explore the first of these options below, because it equates to interpreting “all cars” to mean “all cars corresponding to a specific service header”. Here, I’ll assume that clients need to retain the option to pass the serviceHeader into the CarRepository for findAll() to use.

Let me repeat that.

Clients need to retain the option to pass the serviceHeader into the CarRepository for findAll() to use.

Guess what, folks: that describes exactly what this class needs to do. It describes the essential interactions between CarRepository and its collaborator CarService. CarRepository has the responsibility of giving the correct serviceHeader (and we haven’t decided how it will get that yet) to CarService.findAll(). Now, when we articulate it like that, it sounds like we’re assuming the implementation, which takes us back to the “tautological” objection that brought us all here right now.

I see it differently.

I have a CarService with a clear interface for mapping a service header to a collection of cars. I have an annoying client who insists on asking me for “all the cars” without specifying that service header. Unfortunately, I don’t know how to do that, so as a compromise, I tell the client that as long as it gives me the service header another way, then I’ll have the information I need to find “all the cars”. (Yeah… it sounds stupid to me, too, so I hope this isn’t how the real system in Fabio’s example works. If it is, then I empathize with his situation.) Either way, my job entails connecting the service header to the CarService, because my client curiously insists on doing this the hard way. We’ve all been there. It forms part of the contract between the Service and its collaborators. A contract is just a choice, after all—it doesn’t need to “make sense”.

If my client would just give me the damn service header along with the request to “find all the cars”—you know, a function parameter—then we wouldn’t need any of this extra complication. Unfortunately, my client insists on doing things their way. Fine. They can have a CarRepository, but they have to provide the service header through the repository’s constructor, and the repository will make sure that it uses that service header (and not some other one) to “find all the cars”. Will that make you happy, client?!!?

In terms of Java 8 standard libraries, the Service needs a Provider/Supplier of Service Headers, and so I would use the explicit type Supplier<ServiceHeader>. In the old days of Java, I would need my own custom interface for this, and I would probably have called it ServiceHeaderFactory or ServiceHeaderProvider. I would use a structural name because the entire notion seems very artificial and might have no natural meaning in the domain. It makes sense, after all!

Based on this, the test becomes clear to me. In words: the repository had better pass to CarService.findAll() whichever serviceHeader it received from its client (through the Supplier/Factory), and not a different one; it had better return the resulting Cars unfiltered back to the client.

I see two tests, although if you wanted to write them as a single test, I would argue with you for 15 seconds before going along with your decision.

  1. Stub CarService.findAll(anything()) to return arbitrarySetOfCars. Now CarRepository.findAll() should be arbitrarySetOfCars.
  2. When I call new CarRepository(carService, myServiceHeader).findAll(), someone should call carService.findAll(myServiceHeader), matching the parameter exactly.

To avoid a deep philosophical argument (at least for now), I’ve combined these into a single test:

public void searchesForCarsWithTheRightServiceHeader() throws Exception {
  final Cars cars = new Cars(new Car("irrelevant car name"));
  final ServiceHeader serviceHeader = new ServiceHeader();

  final CarService carService = mock(CarService.class);

  // Implicitly verifies that findAll() receives the correct argument

  final CarRepository carRepository = new CarRepository(carService, serviceHeader);

  assertSame(cars, carRepository.findAll());

Far from “tautological”, this test describes the very purpose of CarRepository: it relies on CarService to find the right cars, but it has to provide the right serviceHeader.

Uh… why not just write integrated tests? Fabio recommended this in his article. I don’t feel the need to duplicate all the tests for CarService in order to test CarRepository. I also don’t feel comfortable testing CarService only through CarRepository, especially given that CarService exports a much more convenient interface to its clients. If anything, I wouldn’t bother testing CarRepository and put all my energy into testing CarService. Seriously.

Hiding The Ugliness of Instantiating CarService

Now imagine that whoever wrote CarService made this class catastrophically difficult to instantiate. Nothing changes. In fact, all the more reason not to write tests that integrate CarRepository to CarService: the code to set up CarService would make us throw up in our mouths a little. This pushes me even more strongly to insist on using test doubles for CarService in order to bypass its painful constructor. I’d still write the same tests that I’ve described just a few paragraphs ago, and for the same reasons.

However, and much to my surprise, if we have a CarService that takes so much effort to instantiate, then we probably also have a CarService that takes too much effort to test. This nudges me in the direction of integrated tests for CarRepository only because we probably have no tests for CarService itself. In this case, we’d have no duplication. You could probably talk me into this, even without a bribe. I’d eventually want to do one of two things: either collapse CarService into CarRepository or redesign CarService’s constructor to suck less. In the first case, the integrated tests would no longer integrate things. In the second case, the integrated tests would (mostly) transform into CarService tests and I’d want to write the same CarRepository tests as I described just a few paragraphs ago, and for the same reasons.

Choosing a Service Header

If we don’t need to adapt the sensible, simple, delightful CarService interface to connect to an insane, unreasonable, evil client that insists on findAll() with no parameters, then I can only think of one reason for CarRepository to exist: to decide on a service header. Maybe for this particular application, we always want cars corresponding to a given service header. (Notice, I still have no earthly idea what “service header” means, nor do I need to know.)

Hey! I just did it again. I described the essential purpose of CarRepository: to decide which service header to use to find all the cars. This tells me that the tests should focus on searching on “the right” service header. I see two choices: let clients pass the service header into CarRepository as a parameter, or force CarRepository to decide on the service header itself. Guess what? The first option takes us back to what I’ve already done here. (All roads seem to lead to one place.) The second option changes things just a little.

Let’s assume that CarRepository encapsulates “the correct service header”—once again, whatever that means. How do I know that CarRepository has chosen wisely? I could ask it for its service header, but I see no other value in making CarRepository do that, so I consider that my last resort.4 With the pieces available to me, I can detect which service header CarRepository will use by… you guessed it… setting an expectation on the parameter it passes to CarService.findAll(). Once again, I’ve described the essential interaction between CarRepository and CarService: put “the right” service header in “the right place” at “the right time”. Once again: same tests, same reasons, except perhaps a different emphasis, as reflected in subtle differences in naming.

public void searchesForCarsWithTheRightServiceHeader() throws Exception {
  final Cars cars = new Cars(new Car("irrelevant car name"));
  final ServiceHeader expectedServiceHeader = new ServiceHeader("my guess at the correct properties for service header");

  final CarService carService = mock(CarService.class);

  // Implicitly verifies that findAll() receives the correct argument

  // The CarRepository encapsulates the service header
  final CarRepository carRepository = new CarRepository(carService);

  assertSame(cars, carRepository.findAll());

Rather than playing “spot the differences”, I’ll enumerate them for you.

  1. I renamed serviceHeader to expectedServiceHeader to emphasize checking that CarRepository gets the service header “right”.
  2. I changed verify() to check the parameter to findAll() with equals() instead of ==/same(), because the instance of ServiceHeader I want to compare to remains trapped inside CarRepository and I have no way to get a handle to it. (More on that in a moment.)
  3. I don’t pass serviceHeader into the constructor for CarRepository, but instead leave a comment to describe why the test has to guess the service header. I’ve used a string to represent the service header, because Fabio’s article didn’t describe what makes service headers differ from one another. In the real code, we would put real service header attributes.

Something bothers me about this test. I can express my consternation both in terms of intuition and mechanics.5 My intuition says, “I shouldn’t have to jump through all those hoops to know which service header to check for.” I look at the code and see that the service header I expect comes out of nowhere: I don’t see it anywhere in the input, nor anything that corresponds to it in the input, so I can’t account for why to expect it in the output. It works like magic.

I do not like magic.

What to do? I would prefer it if I could say something like pretend that the CarRepository chooses service header X; when it does, then I should expect parameter X when invoking carService.findAll(). How do I implement this?

If this doesn’t make you chuckle, then pay more attention.

Step 1. I don’t want to change the interface of CarRepository, but I need a seam so that I can override the service header. I can use Subclass to Test to do this.

public void searchesForCarsWithTheRightServiceHeader() throws Exception {
  final Cars cars = new Cars(new Car("irrelevant car name"));
  final ServiceHeader anyServiceHeader = new ServiceHeader();

  final CarService carService = mock(CarService.class);

  // Implicitly verifies that findAll() receives the correct argument

  // The CarRepository encapsulates the service header
  final CarRepository carRepository = new CarRepository(carService) {
    protected ServiceHeader theServiceHeader() {
      return anyServiceHeader;

  assertSame(cars, carRepository.findAll());

You’ll notice a few changes.

  1. I don’t need to specify any special attributes in the service header any more, because I don’t need it to match whatever CarRepository has chosen for itself, because I’ve overridden it anyway.
  2. I can go back to verifying the service header parameter with ==/same, rather than resorting to equals(), because the test controls the instance of ServiceHeader I expect to pass to CarService.findAll().
  3. I’ve renamed expectedServiceHeader to anyServiceHeader, because now I don’t care about the value of that instance, just as long as it is a service header. Even null would do, although that would carry other risks that I’d rather avoid.

I like this more, but not enough, because although my test now clearly describes the path from input to expected result, it now depends on knowing that CarRepository gets its service header from theServiceHeader(), rather than using the field directly. Oh no! Tautological TDD!

We can’t leave it like this. We won’t. Calm down, Bob.

Step 2. Let’s Replace Inheritance with Delegation6.

public void searchesForCarsWithTheRightServiceHeader() throws Exception {
  final Cars cars = new Cars(new Car("irrelevant car name"));
  final ServiceHeader anyServiceHeader = new ServiceHeader();

  final CarService carService = mock(CarService.class);

  // Implicitly verifies that findAll() receives the correct argument

  final CarRepository carRepository = new CarRepository(carService, anyServiceHeader);

  assertSame(cars, carRepository.findAll());

This looks awfully familiar.

Step 3. Profit.

Once again, all roads appear to lead to the same place. I don’t know what else to say here. The code wants me to design it this way, clearly, so I oblige it.

Uh… ServiceHeaderFactory?

Right. You probably noticed that I’ve ignored ServiceHeaderFactory so far, and I hope that that bothered you a little. It bothered me. Fortunately, it doesn’t matter, because ServiceHeaderFactory does nothing more than create a closure around serviceHeader, so nothing essential changes in any of the foregoing if you decide to replace serviceHeader with (() => serviceHeader)(), or, if you’d like some names with your block of code—

new ServiceHeaderFactory() {
  public ServiceHeader create() {
    return serviceHeader;

It merely replaces a value with calling a function that returns that value. Potato, potato. You won’t hurt my feelings.

Tautological? No. Essential.

I think I’ve done a few things here. You will have to judge how well.

  1. Shown how easily one can conflate “tautological testing” (a definite risk in programmer testing) with “testing essential interactions” (an effective technique in programmer testing that guides design).
  2. Shown how clunky tests with mock objects can point to potential design flaws in production code. (I still think CarRepository has to go.)
  3. Shown how sensible testing with mock objects and sensible modular design work hand-in-hand.

So there.


I totally lost count of the number of times I typed “Cat” and then replaced it with “Car” when I wrote this.



Eric Evans, Domain-Driven Design: Tackling Complexity in the Heart of Software.

Erich Gamma and others. Design Patterns.

Martin Fowler and others, Refactoring: Improving the Design of Existing Code.


  1. Fabio Pereira, “TTDD - Tautological Test Driven Development (Anti Pattern)”↩︎

  2. A debugging technique not only makes it easy to spot mistakes, but also results in a minimal failing test for the mistake.↩︎

  3. Fabio’s article does not divulge how to instantiate CarService. It might involve deep magic.↩︎

  4. See? I don’t always add code “just for testing”.↩︎

  5. Read more about how intuition and mechanics interact in my article, “Becoming an Accomplished Software Designer”.↩︎

  6. Refactoring, page 352.↩︎